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Microbiology laboratory

Author: Shenzhen Zhongjing Global Purification Technology Co., Ltd.Time:2018-07-26 14:57:55Views:651

Microbiology laboratory
  • Microbiology laboratory

The microbiology laboratory's overall solution is different from general laboratory engineering or purification engineering according to the laboratory's safety requirements and usage requirements. The laboratories used in microbiology, biomedicine, biochemistry, animal experiments, genetic recombination, and biological products are collectively referred to as biosafety laboratories. The biosafety laboratory consists of a main functional laboratory and other laboratory and auxiliary function rooms. Biosafety laboratories must ensure personal safety, environmental safety, waste safety and sample safety, and operate long-term and safely, while also providing a comfortable and good working environment for laboratory staff.


General Biosafety Protection Laboratory (without using experimental vertebrates and insects).

Laboratory Vertebrate Biosafety Protection Laboratory.


Each type of biosafety protection laboratory is divided into four levels according to the degree of damage of the microorganisms and their toxins treated. The biosafety protection requirements of the laboratories at all levels are: low level one level and four level high.

Scope of application

General biosafety protection laboratory

Primary Biosafety Laboratory

Laboratory structures and facilities, safe operating procedures, and safety equipment are suitable for microorganisms that are known to have no pathogenic effects on healthy adults, such as general microbiology laboratories for teaching.

Secondary Biosafety Laboratory

Laboratory structures and facilities, safe operating procedures, and safety equipment are suitable for microorganisms that have a medium potential hazard to humans or the environment.

Tertiary biosafety laboratory

Laboratory structures and facilities, safe operating procedures, and safety equipment are suitable for pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins that cause serious or even lethal diseases, mainly through respiratory routes, and are usually vaccines for prevention of infection.

HIV research (with the exception of serological tests) should be conducted in a tertiary biosafety laboratory. Level 4 Biosafety Protection Laboratory

Laboratory structures and facilities, safe operating procedures, and safety equipment are suitable for humans to be highly dangerous. The route of transmission or transmission through the aerosol route is unknown. There are currently no effective vaccines or treatments for pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins. Unidentified microorganisms similar to the above are also required to be carried out in a four-level biosafety laboratory. After sufficient data, it is decided whether such microorganisms or toxins should be treated in a four-stage or lower-level laboratory.

The Laboratory Vertebrate Biosafety Protection Laboratory has the same microbial range as the general biosafety protection laboratory at the same level.

2 special requirements for design and construction editing

Site selection

The tertiary biosafety laboratory can be housed in a building with other uses, but must be self-contained. The area is separated from the public corridor or public part by an isolation gate.

Plane layout

a) The core area of the tertiary biosafety laboratory includes the experimental room and the buffer room connected to it.

b) The buffer chamber forms a passage into the experimental room. Two interlocking doors must be provided. When one of the doors is open, the other door is automatically closed. If an electric interlock is used, both doors must be open when the power is off. A second change can be made in the buffer room.

c) When the laboratory ventilation system does not have an automatic control device, the buffer room area should not be too large, and should not exceed one-eighth of the experimental room area.

d) Class II or Class III biosafety cabinets should be installed away from the laboratory entrance, avoiding areas where workers are frequently moving, and facilitating the formation of airflow patterns from the “clean” area to the “contaminated” area.

Envelope structure

a) The inner surface of the enclosure (including the buffer room) must be smooth, corrosion-resistant and waterproof to facilitate disinfection and cleaning. All gaps must be reliably sealed.

b) All doors in the laboratory can be automatically closed.

c) No windows shall be provided except for the observation window. The observation window must be a sealed structure, and the glass used is not broken glass.

d) The ground should be free of leakage, smooth but not slippery. Do not use grounded floors such as floor tiles and terrazzo.

e) The angle between the ceiling, the floor and the wall is round and reliable, and insects and rats should be prevented from drilling into the wall.

Ventilation and air conditioning

a) A separate ventilation and air conditioning system must be installed to control the laboratory airflow direction and pressure gradient. The system must ensure that the indoor air is not discharged from other parts of the laboratory or to the outside of the laboratory, except that it is efficiently filtered out through the exhaust duct. It also ensures that the airflow in the laboratory flows from the “clean” area to the “contamination”. "area. The layout of the air inlet and exhaust vents should minimize the dead space in the experimental area.

b) The ventilation and air conditioning system is a direct exhaust system, and part of the return air system shall not be used.

c) Environmental parameters: The internal pressure of the laboratory is maintained relative to the outside of the laboratory. The relative pressure between the experiments is preferably -30 Pa to -40 Pa, and the relative pressure between the buffers is preferably -15 Pa to -20 Pa. The temperature and humidity in the laboratory are suitable for controlling the comfort of the human body, or according to the process requirements. The air cleanliness in the laboratory is preferably in the order of seven to eight as defined in GB50073-2001 "Code for Design of Clean Plants". Laboratory artificial lighting should be uniform, not dazzling, and the illumination should be no less than 500lx.

d) In order to ensure that the airflow in the laboratory flows from the “clean” area to the “contaminated” area, the layout of the exhaust vents on both sides should not be used in the laboratory. Ventilation design for the upper row should not be used. The internally efficiently filtered air discharged from the biosafety cabinet can be vented directly to the atmosphere through the system's exhaust ducts or sent to the building's exhaust system. The pressure balance between the biosafety cabinet and the exhaust system should be ensured.

e) The inlet air of the laboratory should be filtered by primary, middle and high efficiency.

f) The exhaust of the laboratory must be directly discharged into the air at a speed of not less than 12 m/s after high efficiency filtration or other methods. The exhaust vent should be away from the system air inlet. The treated exhaust can also be discharged into the building's exhaust ducts, but must not be returned to any part of the building.

g) Air inlet and exhaust air Efficient filters must be installed in the tuyere of the laboratory on the enclosure to avoid contamination of the duct.

h) In the laboratory ventilation system, a gas-tight regulator valve shall be installed at the inlet and exhaust manifolds, and if necessary, it may be completely closed for indoor chemical fumigation.

i) All components used in the laboratory's ventilation system must be airtight. The high efficiency filter used must not be a wooden frame.

j) The fan should be installed to start the automatic interlock device to ensure that the fan is turned on after the fan is started. When shutting down, turn off the blower and then turn off the blower.

k) Do not install a split air conditioner in the laboratory.

Safety devices and special equipment

a) Class II or III biosafety cabinets must be installed in the main laboratory. The installation location should meet the requirements in

b) Continuous flow centrifuges or other equipment that may generate aerosols should be placed in physical containment equipment that is capable of filtering the aerosols it may produce through a high efficiency filter. Exhaust air from all other exhaust devices (fume hoods, exhaust hoods, etc.) that must be installed in the laboratory must be filtered through a high efficiency filter before being discharged. The interior arrangement should facilitate the formation of a flow pattern of airflow from the "clean" zone to the "contaminated" zone.

c) An autoclave or other disinfection device that does not produce steam must be installed in the laboratory.

d) A transfer window should be provided between the experiment and the outside. The double doors of the transfer window shall not be opened at the same time, and a physical disinfection device shall be provided in the transfer window. Infectious materials must be placed in a closed container to pass through the transfer window.

e) A pressure display alarm must be placed at a prominent location at the entrance to the laboratory to show the negative pressure condition between the laboratory and the buffer room. When the negative pressure indication deviates from the preset interval, it must be able to alert the personnel inside and outside the laboratory by means of sound, light, etc. The display of the airflow resistance of the high-efficiency filter of the delivery and exhaust air can be increased on the device.

f) There is no power outage during the start-up of the laboratory. A dual power supply should be used. If it is difficult to achieve, you should install a backup power supply or an uninterruptible power supply that can be automatically switched during a power outage to supply power to key equipment (biological safety cabinets, fume hoods, exhaust hoods, and lighting).

g) There is a sink in the buffer room: the water supply door of the sink must be pedal, elbow or automatic switch. If the sink is located in the main laboratory, the sewer must be separated from the building's sewer line and clearly marked. The sewage must be disinfected. The sink is for hand washing only and must not be poured into any infectious material. The water supply pipe must be equipped with a backflow prevention device. Do not install floor drains in the laboratory.


a) The surface of the test bench should be impervious to water, corrosion and heat.

b) The furniture in the laboratory should be firm. For easy cleaning, a certain gap should be maintained between the various furniture and equipment. There should be a table (rack) dedicated to the placement of biological waste containers. The corners and protruding parts of furniture and equipment should be smooth and burr-free, and should be rounded.

c) The required vacuum pump should be placed in the laboratory. The vacuum line must be equipped with an online high efficiency filter.

d) Cylinders such as compressed air should be placed outside the laboratory. The pipe passing through the envelope must be sealed with a non-shrinking sealing material between the pipe and the envelope. The gas line must be equipped with an on-line high efficiency filter and backflow prevention device.

e) Eyewash devices should be installed in the laboratory.

f) Laboratory outlets should have illuminated signs.

g) A communication system must be set up inside and outside the laboratory.

h) Information such as laboratory records in the laboratory should be sent to the laboratory via a fax machine.

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